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Employment Law in Egypt

Employment matters in Egypt are primarily regulated by the following legislative sources.

  • Law No. 47 for the year 1978 governing civil servants.

  • Law No. 48 for the year 1978 governing public sector employees.

  • Law No. 203 for the year 1991, addressing special requirements for employees working in the public commercial (business) sector of the State.

  • Law No. 12 for the year 2003, regulating relationship between employers and employees in private sector.

In addition to the Labour Law, several ministerial decrees are considered complimentary to the Labour Law. In cases where no specific rules are applicable for a given matter in employment relationship, the provisions of the Egyptian Civil Code are applied to the employment contract.

Employment Law in Egypt: Quick Facts
  • Probationary periods may not exceed a time period of three months. Probationary Periods

  • An employment contract is defined as an agreement between an employer and an employee, whereby the latter commits to working for, and under the management and supervision of, the former in return for a wage. Employment Contracts

  • The minimum hourly wage is no less than 7% of the basic salary. Minimum Wage

  • Employees’ normal working time should not exceed more than eight hours per day or a total of 48 hours per week. Working Hours and Days

  • Employees are generally entitled to a lunch break and to a weekly rest. Rest breaks and rest periods

  • Every employee is entitled to 21 days’ annual leave per year provided they have worked one year for the employer. Annual Leave

  • Pregnant employees are entitled to maternity leave. An employer must not dismiss a pregnant employee nor send her any notice during her pregnancy or maternity leave. Maternity Leave

  • Employees are generally entitled to sick leave pay. Sick Leave

  • The employer may not discriminate between working men and women with regard to: type of work, amount of wage or salary, employment, promotion, professional qualifications and apparel. Discrimination

  • There is a general, non-specific ban on any discrimination that prejudices equal opportunity employment, equal access to jobs, equal continuity of employment or equal enjoyment of rights, and on discrimination between employees with the same work duties. Disability is the only grounds on which discrimination is specifically prohibited.

  • Employers must provide employees with adequate means of protection against hazards of occupational injury and disease that may occur during work. They also have a range of specific obligations. Health and Safety Regulations

  • In principle, an employer may dismiss an employee at any time without notice on certain misconduct-related grounds. Other reasons of termination will lead to unlawful termination. Termination of Employment